Electrical energy storage technologies are an important solution for a mismatched problem between the distributed intermittent power generation (like solar and wind power) and stabilization of the local grid electricity supply.
Among various energy storage techniques, the vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is a prospective energy storage technique with potential, because of the technique’s advantages, such as flexible power rating design and long life cycle. VRFB stores energy in vanadium-based electrolytes (shown in Fig. 1), and the electrolytes are circulated by two pumps from the two reservoirs to each half cell.
Bushveld Minerals Limited (LON:BMN), together with its subsidiaries, engages in the exploration and development of mineral projects in South Africa. It operates through three segments: Vanadium and Iron Ore, Coal Exploration, and Vanadium Mining and Production.